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      新型冠狀病毒,你真的了解嗎?

      瀏覽次數:2721      日期:2020-02-12 12:12:08

      2020年1月30日晚,世界衛生組織(WHO)宣布,新型冠狀病毒(SARS-CoV-2)疫情將構成國際關注的突發公共事件(PHEIC)。這次爆發的新型冠狀病毒疫情之所以會被列為國際關注的公共衛生緊急事件,主要是因為中國內部肺炎感染者數量在持續增加,同時,目前已有多個國家出現肺炎疫情,而且確診人數也有所增加。這一聲明的發出意味著,與SARS-CoV-2疫情(COVID-19)疫情的搏斗不在僅僅是中國公民的戰爭,更是全球人民的戰斗。那么新型冠狀病毒究竟是什么?怎樣傳播?什么來源?及怎么治療?這些都是我們需要了解的。在了解什么是新型冠狀病毒之前,我們先了解下什么是冠狀病毒。

      什么是冠狀病毒?

      冠狀病毒屬于套式病毒目、冠狀病毒科、冠狀病毒屬,是一類具有囊膜、基因組為線性單股正鏈的RNA病毒,是自然界廣泛存在的一大類病毒。它不僅是普通感冒的主要病原體之一,更是幾次嚴重疫情的罪魁禍首。2003年肆虐的嚴重急性呼吸綜合征冠狀病毒,以及前幾年影響沙特阿拉伯、韓國等地的中東呼吸綜合征冠狀病毒,在分類上都是冠狀病毒科冠狀病毒屬中的病毒。如Figure 1所示,冠狀病毒呈球形,膜上有冠狀突起,直徑為75-160 nm,病毒基因組為連續的線性單鏈RNA,分子量通常為(5.5-6.1)x106。

      The Typical Structure of Coronavirus

      Figure 1. The Typical Structure of Coronavirus

      冠狀病毒基因組依次編碼刺突蛋白(S)、包膜蛋白、膜蛋白和核蛋白。其中,刺突蛋白是冠狀病毒最重要的表面膜蛋白。

      什么是新型冠狀病毒?

      新型冠狀病毒是2019年在人體中發現的冠狀病毒新毒株,起源于武漢,并于2020年1月12日被世界衛生組織命名為SARS-CoV-2。它與2003年的SARS冠狀病毒(SARS CoV)均屬于冠狀病毒的β屬。SARS-CoV-2與2003年"非典"SARS CoV比對,有約70%序列相似性,與MERS CoV有40%的序列相似性。

      華美生物密切關注SARS-CoV-2的發展趨勢,獲取病毒基因序列后,我司迅速開發生產了SARS-CoV-2相關蛋白和抗體產品。產品涵蓋了大腸桿菌、酵母、桿狀病毒和哺乳動物細胞來源的Spike蛋白(S)和N蛋白(N),以滿足科研、檢測和制備SARS-CoV-2抗體需求。您可以單擊以下按鈕查看與SARS-CoV-2相關的完整產品。

      The full list of SARS-CoV-2 related products

      SARS-CoV-2是如何傳播?

      相關研究表明,新型冠狀病毒可通過與眼、口和鼻粘膜中的ACE2相互作用進入人體。目前該病毒正在中國許多地方及其他國家中人與人之間傳播。 1月30日,疾病控制與預防中心(CDC)確定了美國首例人際傳播病例。目前SARS-CoV-2可能傳播的途徑包括:

      • 呼吸道飛沫傳播:是新型冠狀病毒主要的傳播途徑,同時也可以通過接觸傳播。手觸摸的物品被含病毒的飛沫污染,病毒可能會經手進入口腔、鼻腔、眼睛等粘膜;
      • 空氣傳播:病毒攜帶者或感染者的噴嚏和咳嗽;
      • 消化系統:也就是常說的糞口傳播,部分感染者的糞便中已發現病毒核酸。

      感染SARS-CoV-2后癥狀有哪些?

      如Figure 2所示,感染新冠狀病毒后的主要癥狀包括:

      • 以發熱、乏力和干咳為主要表現;
      • 鼻塞、流涕等上呼吸道癥狀少見;
      • 約半數患者多在一周后出現呼吸困難,嚴重者快速進展為急性呼吸窘迫綜合癥、膿毒癥休克、難以糾正的代謝性酸中毒和凝血功能障礙。

      值得注意的是重癥、危重癥患者病理過程中可為中低熱,甚至無明顯發熱,部分患者起病癥狀輕微,可無發熱,多在一周后恢復,多數患者預后良好,少數患者病情危重,甚至死亡。

      The Sympotoms of SARS-CoV-2

      Figure 2. The Sympotoms of SARS-CoV-2

      SARS-CoV-2來源于何處?

      目前,SARS-CoV-2的來源尚不清楚。有專家猜測,這次可能仍然和其他冠狀病毒一樣均來源于野生動物。冠狀病毒通常來源于動物,如駱駝、小鳥和蝙蝠,通常不傳染給人類。但是有時候,冠狀病毒會發生突變,然后從動物傳播給人類,進而發展成人傳人,比如2003年SARS流行病。中國國家衛生委員會證實,已有15名醫護人員被感染,表明該病毒可以在人與人之間傳播。

      讀到這里,您可能會感到困惑,我應該擔心寵物(例如狗和貓)攜帶SARS-CoV-2嗎?這個目前并沒有證據顯示貓狗等寵物會感染、傳播新型冠狀病毒。但從衛生角度考慮,與寵物接觸后,應用肥皂和水洗手。

      如何防止SARS-CoV-2感染?

      根據中疾控和世界衛生組織各方專家的觀點,公眾預防應注意以下四個方面:

      一是勤洗手。包括在制備食品之前、期間和之后;咳嗽或打噴嚏后;照護病人時;飯前便后;手臟時;在處理動物或動物排泄物后,立刻用肥皂、含有酒精的洗手液和清水洗手。

      二是主動防護。在自己咳嗽或打噴嚏時,應用紙巾或袖口或屈肘將口鼻完全遮住,并將用過的紙巾立刻扔進封閉式垃圾箱內,并洗手。易感人群應盡量避免去人群密集的公共場所,可佩戴口罩減少接觸病原風險。避免在未加防護情況下與病人密切接觸,避免觸摸其眼、口、鼻。同時注意保持家庭和工作場所開窗通風,環境清潔。

      三是避免密切接觸。盡量避免在未加防護情況下與養殖或野生動物近距離接觸;避免與生病的動物和變質的肉接觸;避免與生鮮市場里的流浪動物、垃圾廢水接觸。

      四是良好安全飲食習慣。將肉和蛋類徹底煮熟食用,處理生食和熟食之間要洗手,切菜板及刀具要分開。

      關于SARS-CoV-2感染后的治療,目前尚無特定治療方法,大多數人會自行康復。所以,治療主要是用藥減輕癥狀,多休息。加濕器或熱水淋浴可以幫助緩解喉嚨痛和咳嗽。如果病情較輕,則應多喝水并休息。

      雖然目前還沒有針對新冠狀病毒的疫苗,但從美國國立衛生研究院的研究人員處得到證實,疫苗正處于開發的初期階段。計劃在未來三個月內啟動疫苗的1期臨床試驗。此外,研究人員還致力于收集病毒樣本,旨在設計一種療法來檢測患者的免疫細胞和破壞病毒。

      SARS-CoV-2 蛋白產品

      Target Name Product Name Code Species Source Tag Info
      N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N) CSB-EP3325GMY SARS-CoV-2 E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
      N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N) CSB-YP3325GMY SARS-CoV-2 Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-PDI-tagged
      N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N) CSB-MP3325GMY SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell Tag-Free
      N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N) CSB-YP3325GMYa4 SARS-CoV-2 Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-sumostar-tagged
      N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N),partial CSB-EP3325GMY1 SARS-CoV-2 E.coli C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
      N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N),Biotinylated CSB-EP3325GMY-B SARS-CoV-2 E.coli N-terminal MBP-tagged and C-terminal 6xHis-Avi-tagged
      NSP3 Recombinant Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Non-structural protein 3(nsp3),partial CSB-EP3398GND SARS-CoV-2 E.coli N-terminal 10xHis-tagged
      NSP5 Recombinant Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 3C-like proteinase(NSP5) CSB-EP3389GND SARS-CoV-2 E.coli N-terminal 10xHis-tagged
      Nsp9 Recombinant Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Non-structural protein 9(nsp9) CSB-MP3388GND SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal hFC-Flag-tagged
      Nsp9 Recombinant Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Non-structural protein 9(nsp9) CSB-EP3388GND SARS-CoV-2 E.coli C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
      S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1 SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 6xHis-mFc-tagged
      S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1b1 SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell N-terminal 10xHis-tagged and C-terminal Myc-tagged
      S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-YP3324GMY1 SARS-CoV-2 Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-sumostar-tagged
      S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) (V367F), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1(M1) SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
      S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) (W436R), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1(M2) SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
      S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) (G476S), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1(M4) SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
      S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) (V483A), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1(M5) SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
      S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial,Biotinylated CSB-MP3324GMY1-B SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal mFc-Avi-tagged
      S (S1) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-YP3324GMYa4 SARS-CoV-2 Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-sumostar-tagged
      S (S1) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-MP3324GMY SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell N-terminal 10xHis-tagged and C-terminal Flag-tagged
      S (S1) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) (D614G), partial CSB-MP3324GMY(M1) SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 10xHis-tagged

      SARS-CoV-2 抗體產品

      Product Name Code Reactivity Species Tested Applications
      N Antibody CSB-RA33255A0GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, GICA
      N Antibody CSB-RA33255A1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, WB, GICA
      N Antibody CSB-RA33255A2GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
      N Antibody, Biotin conjugated CSB-RA33255D1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
      N Antibody, FITC conjugated CSB-RA33255C1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
      N Antibody, HRP conjugated CSB-RA33255B1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
      S Antibody CSB-RA33245A0GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, GICA
      S Antibody CSB-RA33245A1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, GICA, Neutralising
      S Antibody, Biotin conjugated CSB-RA33245D1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
      S Antibody, FITC conjugated CSB-RA33245C1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
      S Antibody, HRP conjugated CSB-RA33245B1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
      SARS-CoV-2 RBD Nanobody CSB-RA33245A2GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, GICA, Neutralising
      SARS-CoV-2 RBD Nanobody, Biotin conjugated CSB-RA33245D2GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
      SARS-CoV-2 RBD Nanobody, FITC conjugated CSB-RA33245C2GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
      SARS-CoV-2 RBD Nanobody, HRP conjugated CSB-RA33245B2GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
      SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Antibody Pair 1 CSB-EAP33245 SARS-CoV-2 S-ELISA
      SARS-CoV-2 N Antibody Pair 1 CSB-EAP33255A1 SARS-CoV-2 S-ELISA
      SARS-CoV-2 N Antibody Pair 2 CSB-EAP33255A2 SARS-CoV-2 S-ELISA
      SARS-CoV-2 N Antibody Pair 3 CSB-EAP33255A3 SARS-CoV-2 S-ELISA
      SARS-CoV-2 N Antibody Pair 4 CSB-EAP33255A4 SARS-CoV-2 S-ELISA

      SARS-CoV-2 免疫抗體產品

      Product Name Code Tested Applications Raised in
      S Monoclonal Antibody CSB-MA33245A0m GICA Mouse
      S Monoclonal Antibody CSB-MA33245A1m GICA Mouse
      S Monoclonal Antibody CSB-MA33245A2m GICA Mouse
      S Antibody CSB-PA33245YA01GMY GICA Rabbit
      S Antibody CSB-PA33245YA11GMY GICA Rabbit
      N Antibody CSB-PA33254A0Rb GICA Rabbit
      N Antibody CSB-MA33255A0m GICA Mouse
      N Antibody CSB-MA33255A1m GICA Mouse
      N Antibody CSB-MA33255A2m GICA Mouse

      SARS-CoV-2 試劑盒產品

      Product Name Code Sample Types Assay Principle
      SARS-CoV-2 S RBD Ab (IgG) ELISA Kit CSB-EL33241HU serum, plasma Qualitative
      SARS-CoV-2 S RBD Ab (IgM) ELISA Kit CSB-EL33242HU serum, plasma Qualitative
      SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody ELISA Kit CSB-EL33243HU serum, plasma Qualitative
      SARS-CoV-2 N Ab (IgG) ELISA Kit CSB-EL3325HU serum, plasma Qualitative
      SARS-CoV-2 N/S1 Ab (IgG) ELISA Kit CSB-EL3326HU serum, plasma Qualitative

      冠狀病毒相關產品

      蛋白相關產品
      Target Name Product Name Code Species Source Tag Info
      HE Recombinant Bovine coronavirus Hemagglutinin-esterase(HE) CSB-YP323648BJK BCoV Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
      N Recombinant Bovine coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N) CSB-EP320768BJK BCoV E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
      Orf1ab Recombinant Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus Orf1ab, partial CSB-EP2883GJE MERS-CoV E.coli Tag-Free
      S Recombinant Human coronavirus OC43 Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-EP336163HIY HCoV-OC43 E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-SUMO-tagged
      S Recombinant Human coronavirus OC43 Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-YP336163HIY HCoV-OC43 Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
      S Recombinant Bovine coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-EP333052BJO BCoV E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
      S Recombinant Bovine coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-EP322803BJK BCoV E.coli N-terminal 10xHis-tagged
      SARS-COV-RBD Recombinant Human SARS coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) ,partial CSB-MP348663HQE SARS-CoV Mammalian cell N-terminal 10xHis-tagged and C-terminal Myc-tagged
      抗體相關產品
      Product Name Code Species Reactivity Tested Applications
      S Antibody CSB-PA333052LA01BJO Bovine coronavirus ELISA
      S Antibody CSB-PA322803LA01BJK Bovine coronavirus ELISA, WB
      S Antibody CSB-PA336163EA01HIY Human coronavirus OC43 ELISA

      冠狀病毒與宿主互作靶點產品

      蛋白產品
      Target Name Product Name Code Species Source Tag Info
      ACE2 Recombinant Human Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2),partial(Active) CSB-AP005671HU Human Mammalian cell C-terminal 6xHis-tagged
      ACE2 Recombinant Human Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2),partial CSB-MP866317HU Human Mammalian cell C-terminal hFc-tagged
      CD147 Recombinant Human Basigin(BSG),partial CSB-RP117574h Human E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
      CD147 Recombinant Human Basigin(BSG),partial CSB-MP002831HU Human Mammalian cell C-terminal FC-tagged
      CD147 Recombinant Human Basigin(BSG),partial CSB-MP002831HUf3 Human Mammalian cell C-terminal 6xHis-Myc-tagged
      CTSB Recombinant Human Cathepsin B(CTSB),partial (Active) CSB-AP005381HU Human Mammalian cell C-terminal 6xHis-tagged
      CTSB Recombinant Human Cathepsin B(CTSB),partial CSB-EP006185HU1 Human E.coli N-terminal GST-tagged
      DPP4 Recombinant Human Dipeptidyl peptidase 4(DPP4) CSB-CF007139HU Human in vitro E.coli expression system N-terminal 10xHis-tagged
      NUP98 Recombinant Human Nuclear pore complex protein Nup98-Nup96(NUP98) ,partial CSB-MP016209HU Human Mammalian cell C-terminal hFC-tagged
      TMPRSS2 Recombinant Human Transmembrane protease serine 2(TMPRSS2),partial CSB-EP023924HU Human E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
      TMPRSS2 Recombinant Human Transmembrane protease serine 2(TMPRSS2),partial CSB-YP023924HU Human Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
      抗體產品
      Product Name Code Species Reactivity Tested Applications
      ACE2 Antibody CSB-PA866317LA01HU Human ELISA, IHC, IF
      ACE2 Antibody CSB-PA001150GA01HU Human, Mouse, Rat ELISA,WB
      APN Antibody CSB-PA001827LA01HU Human, Mouse ELISA, WB, IHC, IF
      APN Antibody CSB-PA001827GA01HU Human,Mouse,Rat ELISA,WB
      CD147 antibody CSB-PA11759A0Rb Human ELISA, WB, IHC
      CTSB Antibody CSB-PA06974A0Rb Human, Mouse ELISA, WB, IHC, IF
      DPP4 Antibody CSB-PA06229A0Rb Human, Rat ELISA, WB, IHC, IF
      DPP4 Antibody CSB-PA007139GA01HU Human,Mouse,Rat ELISA,WB,IHC
      TMPRSS2 Antibody CSB-PA971239 Human ELISA,WB
      ELISA Kit 產品
      Product Name Code Sample Types Detection Range
      Human ACE2 ELISA Kit CSB-E04489h serum, plasma, cell culture supernates 0.156 ng/mL-10 ng/mL
      Human APN ELISA kit CSB-EL001827HU serum, plasma, tissue homogenates 31.25 pg/mL-2000 pg/mL
      Human CD147 ELISA Kit CSB-E12994h serum, plasma 12.5 pg/mL-800 pg/mL
      Human CTSB ELISA kit CSB-E13450h serum, plasma, tissue homogenates 0.312 ng/mL-20 ng/mL

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